Secondly, it will be the responsibility of the county to develop and equip ECDE centres particularly in the disadvantaged parts of the country. County governments will also be required to foster networks and build partnerships with parents, sponsors, the private sector and other agencies in their respective jurisdictions to promote the development of pre-primary education.
Perhaps more important and urgent for county governments is the need to enhance and sustain quality in pre-primary education. Alongside this imperative will be the need to implement ECDE programmes for children with special needs including the vulnerable and the disadvantaged groups in the county. County governments will also be required to undertake regular review of the curriculum to ensure inclusion of emerging issues and alternative approaches to pre-primary education. Related to the above function, the Constitution also vests in the county government responsibility for developing childcare facilities. This is in recognition of the fact that good childcare is critical in the holistic development of the individual. The strategies for counties in this area will entail networking with other service providers in the county to focus on childcare and education for children from conception to three years of age. The above assignment of functions by the Constitution notwithstanding, it has been variously submitted that some of the education functions assigned to the national level including universities, tertiary educational institutions, primary education, special education and secondary schools will in fact be mainly performed at the county level. For instance, those functions that will expand and strengthen civil and youth participation in higher education programmes particularly in TIVET should be appropriately performed at the county level. These functions therefore offer an example of functions that could be decentralized or even devolved to the county level. In the light of the fact that a large number of primary and secondary education graduates do not transit to higher levels of learning youth polytechnics offer a viable alternative pathway to skills acquisition opportunities. This therefore makes it imperative for county governments to expand opportunities for increased access to youth polytechnics and home craft centres.
Division of Youth Affairs
The Constitution of Kenya, 2010 in Article 55 makes a special provision for the State to take measures including affirmative action programmes to ensure that the youth access relevant education and training; and that they are protected from harmful cultural practices and exploitation. Further, the Fourth Schedule of the Constitution mandates the national government to promote sports and sports education which ideally targets the youth. The county government is mandated by the Constitution to promote sports, cultural activities and facilities, again targeting the same population enclave.
Under Vision 2030 the government is implementing various flagship projects meant to benefit the youth. These include the Youth Enterprise Development Fund which addresses the issues provided in Articles 55 b, c, and 56 c of the Constitution. It also includes affirmative action policy for youth which address issues in Article 97 (1)c, 98 (1)c, 100 c, ad 177 c of the Constitution. In the same breadth, the establishment of Youth Empowerment Centres will provide one stop shop for providing youth with information and recreational facilities. Other initiatives include the One Billion tree planting campaign under the Trees-For-Jobs-Programme; the development of a New Youth Polytechnics Curriculum and the revitalization 69 of youth polytechnics. Since most of the above initiatives will find expression at the county level it is imperative that the necessary structures for implementing the programme activities be also established at this level.
Division of Culture and Social Services
The Fourth Schedule of the Constitution assigns the county level cultural activities, public entertainment and public amenities including betting, casinos and other forms of gambling; racing; liquor licensing; cinemas; video shows and hiring; libraries; museums; sports and cultural activities and facilities; and county parks, beaches and recreation facilities. Activities of the Department of Culture at the county level will entail planning and implementation of all cultural programmes; establishment and management of community cultural centres and art galleries; registration of cultural practitioners; promotion of Kiswahili and other indigenous languages; providing technical backstopping to communities for the promotion and preservation of tangible and intangible cultural diversity; providing education to the public on the cultural rights and intellectual property rights; documenting viable elements of intangible cultural heritage for inscription and safeguarding. Other activities will entail establishing mechanisms for resolving inter and intra community conflicts; organizing county and external exchange programmes for the promotion of integration and cohesion among the people in the county.
Cultural activities in music at the county level entail capacity building programmes to empower music and dance practitioners in the county; 70
research, documentation and dissemination of music and dance heritage at the county. Other activities entail organization of music and dance festivals and performances; guiding and coordinating all music and dance activities in the county; and coordinating the development of music and dance infrastructure. Activities in county library services also entail implementation of library information policies and strategies; promotion of basic and functional literacy, information literacy and a reading culture in the county. Other activities involve providing technical advice to all Library Information Service matters to the county government; implementing guidelines, norms and standards to conform with national and international standards; and promoting the development of libraries and information services in the county. The Kenya National Archives Services (KNAS) will also perform a strategic role at the county level.
The entities will provide full fledged archives records and documentation management services. With regards to records management, they will interpret and implement legislation in accordance with the Public Archives and Documentation Services Act Cap.19 and the Records Disposal Act Cap.14. They will also identify the weaknesses in the Records Management Systems and advice on appropriate action. The file classification and indexing schemes will also be reviewed with a view to improving them for the efficient capturing, tracking, accessioning, appraisal and disposition of public records held by county offices. They will also select records of enduring value for preservation in county archives while at the same time isolating valueless records for destruction. The KNAS will also undertake activities in archives management that entail researching and referencing archival materials. Other services entail providing repository management services; microfilming services; audio-visual services; conservation and restoration services; electronic record management services and county documentation and information retrieval services.
County Functions in Education, Youth Affairs, Culture and Social Services
- Provision of pre-primary education;
- Supervision of pre-primary education;
- Teacher development (in-serving of pre-primary teachers);
- Administration of Early Childhood Education, Care and Development;
- Monitoring the implementation primary and secondary education programmes in the County;
- Registration and Licensing of Pre-primary education and training institutions;
- Implementation of the National policies in Education at the County level;
- Promotion of Youth Health;
- Nurturing Youth Artistic Talent;
- Village Polytechnics;
- Youth Polytechnics;
- Home Craft Centres;
- Addressing Youth Crime and Drugs;
- Promoting Youth Agriculture and Environmental Protection;
- Mainstreaming Gender Concerns in Youth Programs;
- Addressing Special Needs of Youth;
- Providing Guidance and Counselling Services for Youth;
- Managing and Promoting Youth Enterprise;
- Managing Youth Enterprise Funds;
- Developing Youth Employment Programs;
- Promoting Research for Youth Development;
- Integrating ICT in Youth Programs;
- Promoting Empowerment of Youth;
- Participating in Development of Youth Policy;
- Providing Essential Infrastructure for Youth Development;
- Developing Youth Networks for Social Mobilization;
- Promoting Youth Peace in Social Integration;
- Mainstreaming Gender into Development;
- Providing support to Women Enterprise Development Fund;
- Promotion and coordination of volunteer services;
- Promotion of Youth projects;
- Promoting community development;
- Administration of programmes and institutions for children’s care and development;
- Regulating Betting, casinos and other forms of gambling;
- Racing activities;
- Regulating Liquor licensing;
- Regulating Cinemas, videos shows and hiring of equipment;
- Development and management Museums management;
- Promotion of sports and cultural activities;
- Management of County parks, beaches and recreation facilities;
- Control of drugs and pornography;
- Provision of Library Services; and
- Regulating Sports and Cultural facilities.